# Worlds sideways in time

Here we talk about corkscrews in various orientations in space and time; we will show that a sideways corkscrew traversal could appear in the physical world as virtual particles popping into existence and disappearing again.

Let’s have a look at a corkscrew or helix. It is characterised by a radius and a pitch.

A corkscrew can be straight or kinky. A corkscrew is a three-dimensional object. It can be aligned with one of the axes like this:

Or it can point into any other direction like this:

In a physical corkscrew (for opening bottles) all three dimensions are space dimensions. But we can take one or more dimensions to be time dimensions. The simplest case is when we align the corkscrew along the time axis like this:

The grey plane represents the present, and moves to the left, along the time axis.

Next we show 3 snapshots as the plane moves along into the future, on the right we show how the corkscrew intersects with the plane. It is easy to see that from within our 2-dimensional space and 1-dimensional time universe we get a little spot that moves around in a circle.

If the helix is not exactly aligned with the time axis, but slightly askew then from within our world it appears as if the little circle is moving.

If the helix is pointing into the future direction, we mark the intersecting dot blue, and if it is pointing into the past, towards to origin, we mark the point green. In the previous figures the point always stays the same colour, taken to be blue.

Now what happens if the plane representing the present intersects the corkscrew sideways?

As shown above, first nothing is seen in the space universe, and then seemingly from nowhere a blue and a green dot appear, they fly apart and each appears to meet other dots of the opposite colour, after which they disappear. If the plane hits a perfectly straight helix at right angles then the phenomenon is very regular, all points appear at the same time, but if the helix is kinky and not exactly aligned with any of the axes then the result is messier.

If you call the blue and green dots particles and anti-particles then inside the world it appears that particles and anti-particles are created out of nothing, exist for a while and then hit an antiparticle and disappear. The maximum time for which they can exist depends on the angle at which the plane hits and on the pitch and radius of the helix.

You can see how the same helical structure can appear as a stable particle or a virtual particle depending on the angle at which the helix intersects the time plane.

String theory stems from the observation that some fundamental physical constants, which were otherwise only known from empirical measurements, could be calculated by investigating the vibration modes of a string vibrating in several dimensions. This is no surprise to us, as the helical patterns in our multidimensional set could be viewed as vibrations. However, a string is no more a fundamental object than a particle. It remains a human interpretation of a mathematical concept.